SOUND AND THE MOVING IMAGE

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DIFFERENT TYPES OF SOUND IN FILM

Location Sound

Dialogue - Person/ character talking can be recorded live in sync or synched later.

Sound Effects - used to amplify or enhance experience

Music or Score - to elicit and/or nurture emotion 

Voice Over - represents narration, internal dialogue, voice of God, etc.

 

BASICS THINGS TO THINK OF WHEN CAPTURING SOUND
 

How is an audio signal captured?

Recording Audio

Single or Dual system set up - will you be using a separate system to record sound outside of camera?

 

 

 

Sampling Rate (KHZ)

11 KHZ (Low Quality)

44.1 KHZ (Cd Quality)

48 KHZ (Digital Video Audio)

96 KHZ (2x 48 KHZ) - tougher on computers

192 khz (4x 48KHZ

ALWAYS RECORD UNCOMPRESSED AUDIO

BIT DEPTH

 

RECOMMENDED DOUBLE SYSTEM SET UP:

48 KHZ

16 or 24 bit 

Uncompressed

 

Preamps and audio dedicated recorders in dedicated setups are quieter than ones found in camera, so you will sometimes hear a hiss or buzz from in camera recording.

 

Pay attention to Mic and Line Signals

Line signal is a strong and usually from dedicated device

Mic signal is weaker signal. 

If you have wrong switch - NO SOUND if a Line is switched to Mic and it will create distortion if Mic is on Line.

 

 

 

 

LEVELS:  -20 t0 -12 dbfs when recording

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

When Editing, keep the peak between -12db and -6 db

 

 

Distance matters. Get the mic as close to the subject as possible without distortion.

MICS

BOOM MIC - with a shotgun mic usually directional, good for outdoor

Lavalier MIC - smaller wearable mics

 

 

 

 

MUSIC

Tempo

Sets the pace, goes 

Most "western"music is based around a beat. The speed of the tempo. It is measured by Beats Per Minute or BPM. We measure the BPM based on our heart rate. Average heart rate is 80-100 BPM, this is walking, easy. Slower is calm

100 - 140 BPM, it's lively or upbeat, think marching bands. 

140-160 BPMs and above it's fast paced, exciting, frantic.

Most music can mix a variety of speeds or BPMs in one song. And each one can elicit different feels.

Tempo comes in common time signatures. 4/4 , 3/4 waltz like a merry-go round, 5/4

Within the tempo there are patterns. We build patterns over a beat to create a RHYTHM. It adds momentum.

 

MELODY - the musical sense made out of pitches ascending or descinding in frequency made up of octaves.

Leitmotif-

A short musical recurring theme that we associate with a specific character, place or idea in a film. Name means leading motif. 

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